Person: Kyniska daughter of Archidamos II from Sparta (Lakonia)

Record ID: 3451
Name: Kyniska
Father's Name: Archidamos II
Place of Origin: Sparta (Lakonia)
Date Range: -400 to -375
List of Festivals:
Olympia in Elis (Elis)
List of Events:
Olympia in Elis (Elis) on ( -400 to -375 )
Olympia in Elis (Elis) on ( -400 to -375 )
List of Disciplines:
chariot: harma?
List of References:
IvO 160 = IG V/1, 1564a = IAG 17 =
IvO 634
Paus. 3.8.1; 3.15.1; 5.12.5; 6.1.6
Plu. Ages. 20.1
Plu. Apoph. 2
SEG 11.959 = SEG 11.1238 = SEG 14.357 = SEG 23.260 = SEG 29.417 = SEG 36.394
Xen. Ages. 9.6
List of Prosopographies:
Moretti (1957), nos. 373, 381
Comment: Kyniska was the sister of Agis II and Agesilaos II (king of Sparta from ca. 398-360 BC). The latter persuaded her to breed chariot horses and participate in the Olympic games (Xenophon; Plutarch). She was actually the first woman to do so and win an Olympic victory (Paus. 3.8.1). Pausanias saw two victory monuments of Kyniska (5.12.5, 6.1.6). One consisted of bronze horses, the other of a chariot, horses, a charioteer and a statue of Kyniska herself. The base of both the first (possibly IvO 634) and the second (IvO 160 = IG V/1, 1564a = IAG 17) have been found. Both of them were works by Apellas, son of Kallikles. An estimated date may be the early 4th century BC, based on her brother's rule and the active period of Apellas. Moretti 1957, nos. 373, 381 suggests the 96th Olympiad (= 396 BC) and the 97th Olympiad (= 392 BC).